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Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was ___1___ by Renaissance architecture.
Originating in 12th-century France and ___2___ into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as “the French Style”, with the term Gothic first __3___ during the latter part of the Renaissance. Its characteristic features ___4___ the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.
Gothic architecture is most familiar ___5___ the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castle, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities, and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings.
It is in the great churches and cathedrals and ___6___ a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics ___7___ themselves to appeal to the emotions. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction ___8___ many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are ___9___ with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.
A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and ___10___, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century.
The raising of livestock is a major economic activity in semiarid lands, where grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation. This economic reliance on livestock in certain regions makes large tracts of land susceptible to overgrazing. The consequences of an excessive number of livestock grazing in an area are the reduction of the vegetation cover and the trampling and pulverization of the soil. This is usually followed by the drying of the soil and accelerated erosion.
In developing a model of cognition, we must recognize that perception of the external world does not always remain independent of motivation. While progress toward maturity is positively correlated with differentiation between motivation and cognition, tension will, even in the mature adult, militate towards a narrowing of the range of perception and in the lessening of the objectivity of perception.
Cognition can be seen as the first step in the sequence of events leading from the external stimulus to the behavior of the individual. The child develops from belief that all things are an extension of its own body to the recognition that objects exist independent of his perception. He begins to demonstrate awareness of people and things which are removed from his sensory apparatus and initiates goal directed behaviors. He may, however, refuse to recognize the existence of barriers to the attainment of his goals, despite the fact that his cognition of these objects has been previously demonstrated.
In the primitive being, goal-directed behavior can be very simply motivated. The presence of an attractive object will cause an infant to reach for it; its removal will result in the cessation of that action. Studies have shown no evidence of the infant’s frustration; rather, it appears that the infant ceases to desire the object when he cannot see it. Further indications are that the infant’s attention to the attractive object increases as a result of its not being in his grasp. In fact, if he holds a toy and another is presented, he is likely to drop the first in order to clutch the second. Often, once he has the one desired in his hands, he loses attention and turns to something else.
The impact of the socialization process, particularly that parental and social group ideology, may reduce cognitively directed behavior. The tension this produced, as for instance the stress of fear, anger, or extreme emotion, will often be the overriding influence.
Ⅰ.Fill in the blanks by making a choice between the words given. (60 points, 2 points each)
Ⅱ.Give a brief answer to each of the questions. (40 points, 5 points each)
Ⅲ. Answer the following questions. (50 points, 10 points each)